Grub not showing O/S

Recently I setup an old PC to act as a test server to mimic a server I have for production. I decided I would like it to dual boot into Kali as well.

The installation went well however after the install finished on CentOS 7 would show in Grub. The Kali installation did not show any problems at all.

For anyone having similar issues after some research I was able to resolve the issue by completing the following command within CentOS:

grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub2.cfg

After running the command it should be clear immediately if this has worked as it will list the operating systems that it finds.

Hopefully this should save someone some time if they come across the same issue.

Games To Swap (Steam and Origin)

Over the last year or 2 I have bought a few Humble Bundles. This has resulted in me having a fair few keys for games I already own.

If there are any games that interest you I am open to swap offers.


  • A Golden Wake
  • Aura: Fate of the Ages
  • Broken Sword 1: Shadow of the Templars – The Director’s Cut
  • Broken Sword 2: The Smoking Mirror
  • Cities in Motion 2
  • Cognition: An Erica Reed Thriller: GOTY
  • Deus Ex: Human Revolution – Director’s Cut
  • Hitman 2: Silent Assassin
  • Hitman: Absolution
  • Hitman: Blood Money
  • Hitman: Codename 47
  • Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light
  • Lunar Flight
  • Sid Meier’s Civilization V
  • The Detail Episode 1 – Where the Dead Lie
  • The Whispered World Special Edition


  • The Sims 3 High End Loft Stuff Key
  • The Sims 3 Key
  • The Sims 3 Late Night Key

How A Ping Works


One of the basic things that is generally asked when carrying out any network diagnostics (including the internet) is to carry out a ping. Here we will discuss what a ping is and how useful it is.

What Is A Ping

A ping is 1 of the most basic tool in any diagnostics toolkit. When you find you cannot access a website or a service on the internet you should check that you can actually connect to it (obviously after you have checked that you can access other services).

When you initiate a ping you are requesting that your device (usually a PC) sends a particular type of packet to the IP specified (if you specify a URL it will be translated into an IP first). The results that you receive back from the ping indicate how long it too to receive a response from the ping.

In this instance the type of packet is an ICMP packet (a handy link at the end of the article that shows what an ICMP packet is).

How You Read The Results From A Ping

Running a trace route is a very simple task. Firstly open a Dos prompt (click the link for instructions).

Once open you should see something similar to the screenshot below.

DOS Prompt
DOS Prompt

Now that we have the dos prompt we type the following command to carry out the ping:


As usual replace with the IP or URL for the service that you are trying to test. This command is equivalent of writing “ping -n 4” you will see the “-n” switch shortly. This will result in something like the following:

Basic Ping
Basic Ping

As you can see I have pinged (this site). Prior to the ping starting we receive an acknowledgement that a ping is about to take place and we are advised within brackets what IP address is to be pinged.

As you can see we have received 4 lines each with recurring information. In my case these are exactly the same but this is more of a fluke. Each response contains the following information:

  • Status of request and the IP that responded
  • Size of the packet denoted by bytes=
  • Response time for the packet denoted by time=XXms
  • Time to live denoted by TTL=XX

So lets look at each of these in turn.

Request Status

The status of the request, Usually this would be “Reply From IP” (of course it would not say IP it would have the actual IP address. Alternatively you may receive “Request Timed Out” which indicates that the response from the sent packet did not arrive in a timely manner. This could indicate that your connection is faulty, the server is bogged down or there is a DNS issue to name a few.

Packet Size

This is the size of packet in bytes that we have sent. This can be modified using the “-l” switch however there is little reason to do this normally. The maximum size on most modern PC’s are 65527 (unless you are doing something nefarious).

Response Time

The response time is measured in milliseconds and is how long it has taken for the response to the packet that you have sent takes to arrive. People believe that this is how long it took the packet to arrive at its destination however this is not the case. The time it takes to arrive at the destination is around half of the response time.


TTL stands for Time To Live. Contrary to what quite a few people believe this is not actually how long a packet will last for. Instead it is the maximum amount of hops that the packet will pass through prior to failing (to learn more about hops check out my article “How A Trace Route Works“)

The last piece of information that we receive are the statistics for the test. The information we have gained here are as follows:

  • Packets: Sent – How many packets we sent.
  • Received – How many responses we received
  • Lost – hopefully this would be 0 indicating that we received a response for each packet
  • Minimum – The time taken to receive a response from the fastest packer
  • Maximum – The time taken to receive a response from the slowest packer
  • Average – The average time of all requests to receive a response. The lower this figure the better.

What Else Can I Do With Ping

Previously I mentioned that “ping” was equivalent to “ping -n 4”. You may have guessed by now but the “-n” switch allows you to specify how many packets you send (and you will receive a response line for each 1).

As you can see below the output is very similar to before.

Ping 10 times
Ping 10 times

You may also wish o continually ping an IP. You can also do this simply in this case by using the “-t” switch. This will continually ping the IP until you specifically tell it to stop (by using ctrl + c).

Again an example is below.

Continual Ping
Continual Ping

1 consideration on using the “-t” switch however. I have spoken with many people in the past who have done this and ran it for hours then when they see “Request timed out” they believe they must have a packet loss issue. This may not be the case. A server is quite free to ignore ping requests. Some do not respond at all and some stop responding if they are being bombarded. Others may also choose not to respond if they have too much traffic from other sources to deal with (after all if someone kept banging on your door wouldn’t you stop answering after a while? Why should servers be any different?).

There are other switches that you can use with the ping command however I would say those mentioned above are the most common. If you would like to read more about the switches available check out the link to the Microsoft article at the bottom of the article.

Potential Issues

Could Not Find Host

If you receive an error stating that the “Ping request could not find host” such as the below example. This could be due to a couple of things such as:

  • The domain is not registered (as in my example).
  • The DNS cannot be resolved for the domain name you have tried to ping.
Failed Ping
Failed Ping

Pings Work When They Shouldn’t

At times you may find that you receive a response from a ping when you know it should not respond. Alternatively you may find the domain resolves to an IP but does not respond to pings.

In my example for Could Not Find Host above I came across this problem. In my case as my ISP’s DNS could not resolve the host it provided the IP address they use for capturing traffic for non registered domain names (I had to change my DNS to be that of Google’s namely as the primary and for the tertiary).

If you suspect that this is happening try pinging a completely random domain that is not registered (I personally button bash my keyboard and put .com after it). If you receive the same response (ie IP address) then you can safely assume that the ISP is hijacking the DNS,

Unfortunately this is quite common these days as ISP’s can benefit from advertising on pages you may come across if you mistype a URL.

Further Reading

If you would like to learn more about the more advanced features of pathping take a look at this Microsoft Ping guide.

For more information on what an ICMP packet is read the Microsoft Internet Control Message Protocol article.

I hope you enjoyed this article. If you have any questions feel free to ask. I will no doubt tidy this article up over time and make amendments.

How A Trace Route Works


Previously I have posted an article titled “How A Pathping Works“. In this article i demonstrated how a pathping can help identify where an issue lies if you are unable to connect to a webpage.

Sometimes however a pathping is overkill and you may only need to see where the connection fails. This is where a trace route comes in handy. Continue reading “How A Trace Route Works”

Free IPv6 Magazine 27th July 2012 ONLY

I am always a fan of freebies and of course I am always eager to learn new things so when I saw a post by Admin Magazine on Facebook to advise that to celebrate Sysadmin day  2012 they have partnered with Splunk to offer a free IPv6 download special.

The special covers numerous subjects covering what IPv6 is and how it works through too how to programme using IPv6. Be aware however the download is only available today.

You can download the special here.

On a related note those interested in the free download may also be interested in a guide that have provided regarding IPv6 as well which you can download from here.

You never know, one day the world might be ready for IPv6 and we will need to know this stuff.

How A Pathping Works.


Every now and then you may find that you have a problem with your connection. If you are a webmaster you may on occasion have issues with your website not being accessible or being slow.

In each scenario’s there is a very good windows utility that you can use to help track down where the problem may lie.

The tool in question is a pathping. Continue reading “How A Pathping Works.”

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World (Bruce Schneier)

While doing my usual browsing of Amazon I came across Secrets and Lies by Bruce Schneier. I of course added this to my wish list and decided I would take another look at a later date. Some time later I decided to do a cull of my wish list. Unlike most people thou when I do a cull I tend to buy the item to remove it from my wish list.

When I bought the book I though that it was a bit of a gamble but looked ok so worth the risk. How more wrong could I be, this was certainly not a gamble at all.

Bruce starts the book by requesting that you read it numerous times so that the information sinks in and so that information obtained later in the book can be better understood.

The main part and bulk of the book explains many security concerns and explains why traditional thinking of security is incorrect (such as using a 256 bit encryption key is pointless and contains little security if the key was generated from for example the word password). Many aspects of security are covered within this ranging from network security to standard O/S security. At this point the book appears very negative and seems to suggest that there is little you can do to actually stop the impending security breaches.

Luckily as the book goes on the mood changes slightly and prepares you for methods to help combat the security implications that any system will have. These methods range from creating attack tree’s and how you can best decide on the viability of any attack vector and how to start bringing things into your favor instead of the intruders.

Since this book was written there have been many security breaches that have cost the companies involved large amounts of money both from lost revenue and the cost of picking up the pieces. For example this year Sony had a succession of attacks and the cost of the clean up was estimated to be around $140,000,000, this estimate could quite easily increase substantially as Sony’s insurer is also seeking methods for removing their own liability over the issue meaning that any law suits will come out of Sony’s pocket instead of the insurer.

A short while after this Lockheed Martin were found to have been compromised. On investigation it became clear that RSA had been compromised allowing someone to obtain information on the systems which aided in the Lockheed Martin compromise. As a result of this RSA were essentially forced to replace 40,000,000 secure ID devices.

It is not only the financial cost that these companies have suffered there is also the untold damages to their company profile with which the cost can never really be calculated.

Now you may be wondering my point at this stage, well the point is that if only the security of these companies read this book they may have been better prepared. The frightening thing however is that too many companies take security as an after thought. If the price is too high they decide to disregard the advice or not bother.


Although this is a 10 year old book this is certainly worth a read. You can learn so much from this book and it will completely change your perception of security. This book is highly recommended.

Title: Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World
Author: Bruce Schneier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN 10: 0471453803
ISBN 13: 978-0471453802
Official Site – Buy On Amazon

When A Company Should Man Up

On the 20th of April Sony found that they had a security breach within their services. 7 days later they closed the PSN network and the Quriocity service and announced that 75 million customer details have been stolen. Continue reading “When A Company Should Man Up”

End Of An Era

Over the last 20 – 30 years the Music industry and computing industry have been dominated by a small metallic and plastic disc. This disc of course is a CD.

In late 70’s and early 80’s Sony developed and demonstrated this remarkable product to the world paving the way for music to be stored at a great quality for a cheap price.  Unlike earlier methods for distributing music (such as the LP and tapes) this method was very strong. Continue reading “End Of An Era”